Open Journal Systems

Biofilm Formation and Thermographic evaluation of Fly Ash concrete in sea water

Vinita Vishwakarma

Abstract


Nuclear industry is opting for fly ash modified concrete structures to increase their resistance to seawater and microbial induced deterioration. This study focuses on comparative studies on biodeterioration of three types of concrete; control (unmodified concrete), fly ash and superplasticizer modified concrete exposed for 10 months in seawater environments. Biodeterioration of concrete specimens was evaluated by characterization of biofilm parameters like total bacteria density, density of anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Epifluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the biofilms on these concrete specimens. pH reduction on the exposed concrete specimen surface and the total concrete specimen was evaluated.  Using Lock-in thermography (LT) phase angles and amplitude images were compared between unexposed and exposed concrete specimens to characterize deterioration under biofilms. Fly ash modified concrete showed least pH reduction and least density of total heterotrophic bacteria, SRB and SOB in the biofilms. Epifluorescence micrographs confirmed the delay in the onset of biofilm formation on fly ash modified concrete.  LT study supported and confirmed that there is very little change in the phase angle and amplitude between one year seawater exposed and unexposed fly ash modified concrete indicating least deterioration even after 10 month exposure in seawater.

Keywords


fly ash concrete; biofilms; biodeterioration; seawater; thermography

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lea, F.M., The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. 3rd edition Edward Arnold Ltd., London United Kingdom. 1970.

Ismail, N., Nonaka, T., Nota, S, and Mori, T, Effects of carbonation on microbial corrosion of concrete. Journal of Construction Management and Engineering. 1993. 20:133-138.

Borenstein, SW, Microbiologically influenced corrosion hand book. Woodhead Publishing. Cambridge. UK. 1994.

Schremmer, H, Die Schwefelwasserstoff-Korrosion in Abwasseranlagen. Tiefbau, Ingenieurbau, Strassenbau. 1980. 22:786796.

Lea, FM, and Desch, CH, The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Edward Arnold Ltd., London United Kingdom. 1936. 33.

Atkins, M, and Glassner, FP, Application of Portland cement based materials to radioactive waste immobilization. Waste Management. 1992. (12):105-131.

Orli, Aviam., Gabi, Bar-Nes., Yehudi, Zeri., and Alex, Sivan, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2004. 70 (10): 6031-6036.

Davis, JL., Nica, D., Shields, K, and Roberts, DJ, Analysis of Concrete from Corroded Sewer Pipe, International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 1998. (42):75-84.

Ji-Dong, Gu., Ford, TE., Berk, NS, and Mitchell, R, Biodeterioration of concrete by the fungus Fusarium. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 1998 (41):101-109.

Cappuccino, James G, and Sherman, Natalie., Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual (4th Edition). 1999.

Mah, TC, and O’Toole, GA, Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents., Trends Microbiology. 2001 (9):34–39.

Roddis, W.M. Kim., Concrete bridge deck assessment using thermography and radar. MS Thesis Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1987.

Weritz, F., Wedler, G., Brink, A., Röllig, M., Maierhofer, C, and Wiggenhauser, Investigation of concrete structures with Pulse Phase Thermography, In: Proceeding of the International Symposium on Non-destructive Testing in Civil Engineering.DGZfP.Germany.CDROM and www.dgzfp.de. 2003.

Kamoi, Arao., Okamoto, Yosizo, and Vavilov,Vladimir, Study on Detection Limit of Buried Defects in Concrete Structures by Using Infrared Thermography, Key Engineering Materials. 2004. 270-273: 1549-1555.

Tanaka, Hisashi., Tottori, Seiichi, and NIHEI, Tatsuya, Detection of Concrete Spalling using Active Infrared Thermography, Quarterly Report of RTRI. 2006. (47):138-144.

Chung, Lan., Paik, In-Kwan., Cho, S-H, and Roh, Young-Sook, Infrared Thermographic Technique to Measure Corrosion in Reinforcing Bar, Key Engineering Materials. 2006. 321-323:821-824.

Maierhofer, Ch., Arndt, R., Röllig, M., Rieck, C., Walther, A., Scheel, H, and Hillemeier, B, Application of impulse-thermography for non-destructive assessment of concrete structures. Cement. 2006 (28): 393-401.

Postgate, J.R, The sulphate reducing bacteria. 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 1984. 38 – 45


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.