Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters

Investigation of optimal designs for concrete cantilever retaining walls in different soils

Esra Uray, Serdar Çarbaş, İbrahim Hakkı Erkan, Murat Olgun



In this paper, the investigation of the optimum designs for two types of concrete cantilever retaining walls was performed utilizing the artificial bee colony algorithm. Stability conditions like safety factors sliding, overturning and bearing capacity and some geometric instances due to inherent of the wall were considered as the design constraints. The effect of the existence of the key in wall design on the objective function was probed for changeable properties of foundation and backfill soils. In optimization analysis, wall concrete weight which directly affect parameters such as carbon dioxide emission and the cost was considered as the objective function and analyzes were performed according to different discrete design variables. The optimum concrete cantilever retaining wall designs satisfying constraints of stability conditions and geometric instances were obtained for different soil cases. Optimum designs of concrete cantilever retaining wall with the key were attained in some soil cases which were not found the feasible optimum solution of the concrete cantilever retaining wall. Results illustrate that the artificial bee colony algorithm was a favorable metaheuristic optimization method to gain optimum designs of concrete cantilever retaining wall.


concrete cantilever retaining wall; check for sliding, overturning, and bearing capacity; optimum design; discrete design variables; artificial bee colony algorithm

Full Text:



ACI 318-08 (2008). ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. American Concrete Institute.

AASHTO (2010). American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

Akay B, Karaboga D (2012). A modified artificial bee colony algorithm for real-parameter optimization. Information Sciences, 192, 120-142.

Camp C, Akin A (2012). Design of retaining walls using big bang–big crunch optimization. Journal of Structural Engineering, 138(3), 438-448.

Das BM (2016). Principles of foundation engineering. Cengage Learning, Eighth Edition.

Deb K (2000). An efficient constraint handling method for genetic algorithms. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 186 (2-4), 311-338.

Dorigo M, Gambardella LM (1997). Ant colonies for the travelling salesman problem. Biosystems, 43(2), 73-81.

Gandomi, AH, Kashani AR, Roke DA, Mousavi M (2015). Optimization of retaining wall design using recent swarm intelligence techniques. Engineering Structures, 103, 72-84.

Geem ZW, Kim JH, Loganathan GV (2001). A new heuristic optimization algorithm: harmony search. Simulation, 76(2), 60-68.

Goldberg DE (1989). Genetic algorithms and Walsh functions: part I, a gentle introduction. Complex Systems, 3 (2), 129-152.

Karaboga D (2005). An idea based on honeybee swarm form numerical optimization, Technical Report TR06, Erciyes University, Turkey.

Karaboga D, Akay B (2011). A modified artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for constrained optimization problems. Applied Soft Computing, 11(3), 3021-3031.

Kennedy J, Eberhart R (1995). Particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of ICNN'95-International Conference on Neural Networks, 1942-1948.

Meyerhof GG (1963). Some recent research on the bearing capacity of foundations. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 1(1), 16–26.

Rajabioun R (2011). Cuckoo optimization algorithm. Applied Soft Computing, 11(8), 5508-5518.

Rankine W (1857). Earth Pressure Theory. Phil. Trans. of the Royal Soc.

Sarıbaş A, Erbatur F (1996). Optimization and sensitivity of retaining structures. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122(8), 649-656.

Temür R, Bekdaş G (2016). Teaching learning-based optimization for design of cantilever retaining walls. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 57(4), 763–783.

Uray E, Çarbaş S, Erkan İH, Tan Ö (2019). Parametric investigation for discrete optimal design of a cantilever retaining wall. Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics, 5(3), 108-120.

Yang XS (2009). Firefly algorithms for multimodal optimization. International Symposium on Stochastic Algorithms, 169-178.


  • There are currently no refbacks.