Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters

Predictability of concrete damage level by non-destructive test methods

Boğaçhan Akça, Süleyman Bahadır Keskin, Aysu Göçügenci



Non-destructive methods have many advantages over traditional test methods, especially since it does not damage the specimen, it can be used multiple times on the same specimen. These advantages also provide a great benefit in terms of following the property development in concrete as the same specimens are used which eliminates the variations related to the specimens. In this study, it is aimed to determine the damaged amount of concrete produced with different binders by electrical bulk resistivity, resonance frequency, and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods. Firstly, concretes containing different binders were produced, and along with the mechanical properties, ultrasonic wave velocity, resonance frequency, and electrical resistivity values of the produced concrete were determined at the 7, 28, and 90 days. Besides, the specimens were subjected to gradually increase compressive loads and non-destructive methods were used to estimate the extent of damage on specimens. It was attempted to establish a relationship between the damage on concrete specimens and the results obtained by non-destructive methods. Consequently, the compressive strength, electrical resistivity, ultrasonic pulse velocity and resonance frequency values of all specimens increased with the advancing age. It was concluded that the resonant frequency method is more successful than other methods in estimating the amount of damage in concrete.


non-destructive testing; concrete; damage; mineral admixtures; compressive strength

Full Text:



ACI 211.1-91 (2002). Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA.

ACI 228.2R-98 (1998). Nondestructive Test Methods for Evaluation of Concrete in Structures. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA.

ASTM C39 / C39M-21 (2021). Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.

ASTM C192 / C192M-14 (2014). Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.

ASTM C215-08 (2008). Standard Test Method for Fundamental Transverse, Longitudinal, and Torsional Frequencies of Concrete Specimens. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.

ASTM C597-97 (1997). Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.

Bem DH, Lima DPB, Mederios-Junior RA (2018). Effect of chemical admixtures on concrete´ s electrical resistivity. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36 (1), 174-187.

Breysse D (2012). Non-Destructive Assessment of Concrete Structures: Reliability and Limits of Single and Combined Techniques. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherland.

Chun P, Ujike I, Mishima K, Kusumoto M, Okazaki S (2020). Random Forest-based evaluation technique for internal damage in reinforced concrete featuring multiple nondestructive testing results. Construction and Building Materials, 253, 119238.

Demirboğa R, Türkmen İ, Karakoç MB (2004). Relationship between ultrasonic velocity and compressive strength for high-volume mineral-admixtured concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 34, 2329-2336.

Duan P, Shui Z, Chen W, Shen C (2013). Efficiency of mineral admixtures in concrete: Microstructure, compressive strength and stability of hydrate phases. Applied Clay Science, 83-84, 115-121.

Duran-Herrera A, De-León-Esquivel J, Bentz DP, Valdez-Tamez P (2019). Self-compacting concretes using fly ash and fine limestone powder: Shrinkage and surface electrical resistivity of equivalent mortars. Construction and Building Materials, 199, 50-62.

Ferreira RM, Jalali S (2010). NDT measurements for the prediction of 28-day compressive strength. NDT&E International, 43, 55-61.

Gastaldini ALG, Isaia GC, Hoppe TF, Missau F, Saciloto AP (2009). Influence of the use of rice husk ash on the electrical resistivity of concrete: A technical and economic feasibility study. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 3411-3419.

Ghoddousi P, Saabadi LA (2017). Study on hydration products by electrical resistivity for self-compacting concrete with silica fume and metakaolin. Construction and Building Materials, 154, 219-228.

Giner VT, Ivorra S, Baeza FJ, Zornoza E, Ferrer B (2011). Silica fume admixture effect on the dynamic properties of concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 3272-3277.

Godinho JP, De Souza TF, Medeiros MHF, Silva MA (2020). Factors influencing ultrasonic pulse velocity in concrete. IBRACON Structures and Materials Journal, 13, 222-247.

Gokce HS, Hatungimana D, Ramyar K (2019). Effect of fly ash and silica fume on hardened properties of foam concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 194, 1-11.

Gonen T, Yazicioglu S (2007). The influence of mineral admixtures on the short and long-term performance of concrete. Building and Environment, 42, 3080-3085.

Gupta M, Raj R, Sahu AK (2021). Effect of Rice Husk Ash, silica fume & GGBFS on compressive strength of performance based concrete. Materials Today: Proceedings.

Hassan KE, Cabrera JG, Maliehe RS (2000). The effect of mineral admixtures on the properties of high-performance concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 4, 267-271.

Helal J, Sofi M, Mendis P (2015). Non-destructive testing of concrete: A review of methods. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 14(1), 97-105.

Hong G, Oh S, Choi S, Chin WJ, Kim YJ, Song C (2021). Correlation between the Compressive Strength and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Cement Mortars Blended with Silica Fume: An Analysis of Microstructure and Hydration Kinetics. Materials, 14, 2476.

Kolluru SV, Popovics JS, Shah SP (2000). Determining Elastic Properties of Concrete Using Vibrational Resonance Frequencies of Standard Test Cylinders. Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, CCAGDP, 22 (2), 81-89.

Lai C, Lin Y, Yen T (2001). Behavior and Estimation of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Concrete. Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, 2, 1365-1372.

Layssi, G, Ghods, P, Alizadeh, AR, Salehi, M (2015). Electrical Resistivity of Concrete, Concrete International, 37, 5.

Lee KM, Kim DS, Kim JS (1997). Determination of dynamic Young's modulus of concrete at early ages by impact resonance test. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 1, 11-18.

Lee T, Lee J (2020). Setting time and compressive strength prediction model of concrete by nondestructive ultrasonic pulse velocity testing at early age. Construction and Building Materials, 252.

Lübeck A, Gastaldini ALG, Barin DS, Siqueira HC (2012). Compressive strength and electrical properties of concrete with white Portland cement and blast-furnace slag. Cement and Concrete Composites, 34, 392-399.

Medeiros-Junior RA, Lima MG (2016). Electrical resistivity of unsaturated concrete using different types of cement. Construction and Building Materials, 107, 11-16.

Mehta PK and Monteiro PJM (2006). Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Mohammed TU, Mahmood AH (2016). Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete. Ultrasonics, 69, 129-136.

Ozturk M, Karaaslan M, Akgol O, Sevim UK (2020). Mechanical and electromagnetic performance of cement based composites containing different replacement levels of ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume and rice husk ash. Cement and Concrete Research, 136.

Qasrawi HY (2000). Concrete strength by combined nondestructive methods simply and reliably predicted. Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 739-746.

Shane JD, Aldea CM, Bouxsein NF, Mason TO, Jenning HM, Shaw SP (1999). Microstructural and pore solution changes induced by rapid chloride permeability test measured by impedance spectroscopy. Concrete Science and Engineering, 1, 110-119.

Shi C (2004). Effect of mixing proportions of concrete on its electrical conductivity and the rapid chloride permeability test (ASTM C1202 or ASSHTO T277) results. Cement and Concrete Research, 34, 537-545.

Shi H, Xu B, Zhou X (2009). Influence of mineral admixtures on compressive strength, gas permeability and carbonation of high performance concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 1980-1985.

Tanyildizi H, Coskun A (2008). Determination of the principal parameter of ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength of lightweight concrete by using variance method. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 44, 639-646.

Trtnik G, Kavčič F, Turk G (2009). Prediction of concrete strength using ultrasonic pulse velocity and artificial neural networks. Ultrasonics, 49, 53-60.

Tumidajski PJ (2005). Relationship between resistivity, diffusivity and microstructural descriptors for mortars with silica fume. Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 1262-1268.

Valcuende M, Calabuig R, Martínez Ibernó A, Soto J (2020). Influence of Hydrated Lime on the Chloride-Induced Reinforcement Corrosion in Eco-Efficient Concretes Made with High-Volume Fly Ash. Materials, 13 (22), 5135.

Yildirim G, Aras GH, Banyhussan QS, Şahmaran M, Lachemi M (2015). Estimating the self-healing capability of cementitious composites through non-destructive electrical-based monitoring. NDT&E International, 76, 26-37.