Research Articles | Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters

Biofilm Formation and Thermographic evaluation of Fly Ash concrete in sea water

Vinita Vishwakarma


Nuclear industry is opting for fly ash modified concrete structures to increase their resistance to seawater and microbial induced deterioration. This study focuses on comparative studies on biodeterioration of three types of concrete; control (unmodified concrete), fly ash and superplasticizer modified concrete exposed for 10 months in seawater environments. Biodeterioration of concrete specimens was evaluated by characterization of biofilm parameters like total bacteria density, density of anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Epifluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the biofilms on these concrete specimens. pH reduction on the exposed concrete specimen surface and the total concrete specimen was evaluated.  Using Lock-in thermography (LT) phase angles and amplitude images were compared between unexposed and exposed concrete specimens to characterize deterioration under biofilms. Fly ash modified concrete showed least pH reduction and least density of total heterotrophic bacteria, SRB and SOB in the biofilms. Epifluorescence micrographs confirmed the delay in the onset of biofilm formation on fly ash modified concrete.  LT study supported and confirmed that there is very little change in the phase angle and amplitude between one year seawater exposed and unexposed fly ash modified concrete indicating least deterioration even after 10 month exposure in seawater.


fly ash concrete; biofilms; biodeterioration; seawater; thermography

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